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Medical First Aid - Management

Dr Kingson John David

First-aid is the immediate care given to the victim of an accident or sudden illness before the arrival of a qualified expert. The purpose of First-aid is to preserve life, assist recovery, prevent aggravation and minimize complications at a later date with the help of such material as may be available. 

ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION

 Mouth to Mouth: This is appropriate and

effective technique for emergency artificial

respiration.

 Keep the head slightly backward and open

the jaw.

 Seal the casualty’s nose to prevent escape

of air by pinching with thumb and index

finger.

 Take a deep breath, open your mouth

widely, place it over the victim’s mouth and

make a tight seal.

 Quickly blow the full breath into the mouth of

victim.

 Remove your mouth from the victim and

allow him to exhale passively.

 Repeat the procedure 12 to 15 times per

minute, till medical aid is arranged.

 Arrange immediate medical aid. 

CAUTIONARY NOTE

 Do not give mouth to mouth resuscitation

during CPR in the presence of toxins such

as cyanide, hydrogen sulphide, corrosives

and organo-phosphates. Ventilate the

casualty by using a face mask or

bag/valve/mask assembly.

 Avoid mouth to mouth resuscitation if there

is possibility of transmission of infection

between the victim and the rescuer, such as

HIV, Hepatitis-B, Tuberculosis, Shigellosis,

Meningococcal meningitis, Herpes simplex

virus and Salmonella. Use an interpositional

airway device which must function effectively

in both its resuscitation and protective roles,

and be immediately available at all times. 

CONTROL OF BLEEDING

 Apply direct pressure by thumb or finger.

 Apply dressing – gauze pad and bandage.

 Apply indirect pressure on pressure points.

 Apply tourniquet.

 Remove the injured to the hospital.

FRACTURES

Signs of Fracture : Pain, Tenderness, Swelling,

 Loss of Power, Deformity

 Do not move the injured unless the life is

endangered from other causes.

 Deal with the haemorrhage and breathing

difficulties. Immobilise the fracture by using

suitable splints.

 Immobilisation should include one joint

above and one joint below the fracture.

 Remove the injured to the hospital. 

BURNS

 Pour running cold water on the affected part.

 Do not apply ointments or oils or any other

substance.

 Cover the wound with sterilized cloth.

 Give artificial respiration, if needed.

 Prevent shock.

 Arrange immediate medical aid. 

SHOCK

 Lay the patient on his back.

 Stop bleeding, if any.

 Relieve pain by supporting the injured part.

 Keep the patient comfortable.

 Do not cause sweating.

 Fluids may be given by mouth in small

amounts, if the patient is conscious.

 Reassure the patient.

 Arrange immediate medical aid. 

WOUNDS

 Stop the bleeding, if any.

 Avoid touching the wounds.

 Cover the wound with sterilized cloth.

 Arrange immediate medical aid. 

EYE INJURIES

 Removal of foreign body should not be

attempted.

 Do not apply oil or ointment.

 Apply sterile pad and loose bandage.

 Send the patient to the hospital.

ABDOMINAL WOUNDS

 No time should be lost in sending the patient

to the hospital.

 Keep the patient flat on his back.

 Give nothing by mouth.

 Maintain warmth.

 If intestines protrude from the wound, do not

attempt to touch or replace them.

 Apply sterile dressing and binder on the

wound.

 Provide immediate transportation to the

hospital. 

BACKBONE FRACTURE

 Fracture of backbone may lead to paralysis

of limbs. Hence, victim should be handled

with great care.

 Transport on a rigid frame, which may be

improvised by using available board.

 The rigid frame is to be placed on a stretcher

for transportation.

 Immediate hospitalization is needed.

HEAT STROKE

 Make the patient lie down.

 Remove all clothings except the underwear.

 Keep the patient under the fan.

 Pour cold water on the body repeatedly.

 Wash the head thoroughly with cold water

and dry it with towel.

 Record body temperature falls up to 38ºC

stop pouring water.

 Give plenty of cold water with a pinch of

common salt in each glass of water to drink.

 Send the patient to the hospital. 

BLEEDING NOSE

 Make the patient sit on a Chair with head

downward.

 Pinch the nose with fingers and thumb.

 Apply ice or cold compression.

 Do not plug the nostrils.

 Do not put water or any medicine through

the nostrils.

 Send for medical aid immediately. 

FOREIGN BODY IN THE NOSE

 Do not try to remove the solid object.

 Ask the patient to breathe through mouth.

 Send the patient to the hospital.

BLEADING EAR

 Lay the patient with the head slightly raised.

 Incline the head to the affected side and

apply a dry dressing over the ear with loose

bandage.

 Do not plug the ear.

 Apply pressure in front of the ear.

 Send for medical aid immediately. 

FOREIGN BODY IN THE EAR

 Solid – Do not try to remove, scratch or

probe it.

 Insects – Put a few drops of water in the ear

and turn the head so that affected ear points

upwards.

 Keep the head in that position for 5 minutes,

then turn the head downwards so that the

water flows out.

 Arrange immediate medical aid

SNAKE BITE

 Reassure the patient

 Do not allow the person to run or walk

 Apply a ligature above the wound (in

between the heart and the wound) if the bite

is in the leg or hand.

 Wash the wound with potassium

permanganate solution or with soap and

water.

 Allow free bleeding.

 Never suck the blood from the wound.

 Treat for shock.

 Arrange immediate hospitalization, by

transporting the patient in a lying down

position.

DOG BITE

 Clean the wound immediately with water.

 Then wash with antiseptic soap and water.

 Do not try to stop bleeding.

 Do not cover the wound.

 Send the patient to hospital for treatment.

INSECT BITE

 The sting bite should be pulled out.

 Apply cold compression.

 Apply vinegar diluted with water.

 Soda-bicarbonate paste should be applied at

the site.

 Prevent shock.

 Send for medial aid immediately. 

CHEMICAL BURNS OF THE EYES

 Immediate washing of the eye with clean

water at least for fifteen minute or longer.

 Apply sterile dressing over the eye.

 Neutralising agents or ointments should not

be used.

 Send the patient to the hospital.

SUFFOCATION

 Remove the patient from the source

 Clean the airways.

 Restore breathing by artificial respiration.

 Send the patient to the hospital. 

ELECTRIC SHOCK / INJURIES

 Do not touch the casualty while he is still in

contact with electricity.

 Switch off the current at once.

 Do not attempt first aid until the contact has

been broken.

 Make the air passage clear and clean.

 Restore breathing Artificial respiration and

external cardiac massage, if needed.

 Call for immediate medical aid.

 Send the patient to the hospital. 

UNCONSCIOUSNESS

 Make the patient lie down on his belly with

head turned to one side.

 Check breathing and pulse.

 Loosen tight clothings.

 Clean the air-way.

 Give artificial respiration and external

Cardiac Massage, if needed.

 Transport the patient to the hospital. 

POISONING

 Find the nature of the poison

 Give universal antidote mixture as given

below to drink:

Charcoal powder - 2 table spoons

Coffee powder - 2 table spoons

Chalk powder - 1 table spoon

Add it to a glass of warm water and mix well.

 Send the patient immediately to the hospital. 

CPR step-by-step ( Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation ) :
Step 1. Call for Support 
First, check the scene for factors that could put you in danger, such as traffic, fire, or falling masonry. Next, check the person. Do they need help? Tap their shoulder and shout, “Are you OK?” 
If they are not responding, call emergency number or ask a bystander to call emergency number before performing CPR. If possible, ask a bystander to go and search for an AED machine. People can find these in offices and many other public buildings.
Step 2. Place the person on their back and open their airways
Place the person carefully on their back and kneel beside their chest. Tilt their head back slightly by lifting their chin. 
Open their mouth and check for any obstruction, such as food or vomit. Remove any obstruction if it is loose. If it is not loose, trying to grasp it may push it farther into the airway. 
Step 3. Check for breathing
Place your ear next the person’s mouth and listen for no more than 10 seconds. If you do not hear breathing, or you only hear occasional gasps, begin CPR.
If someone is unconscious but still breathing, do not perform CPR. Instead, if they do not seem to have a spinal injury, place them in the recovery position. Keep monitoring their breathing and perform CPR if they stop breathing. 
CPR steps
Use the following steps to perform CPR:
Step 4. Perform 30 chest compressions
Place one of your hands on top of the other and clasp them together. With the heel of the hands and straight elbows, push hard and fast in the center of the chest, slightly below the nipples. 
Push at least 2 inches deep. Compress their chest at a rate of least 100 times per minute. Let the chest rise fully between compressions.
Step 5. Perform two rescue breaths
Making sure their mouth is clear, tilt their head back slightly and lift their chin. Pinch their nose shut, place your mouth fully over theirs, and blow to make their chest rise. 
If their chest does not rise with the first breath, retilt their head. If their chest still does not rise with a second breath, the person might be choking.
Step 6. Repeat

Repeat the cycle of 30 chest compressions and two rescue breaths until the person starts breathing or help arrives. If an AED arrives, carry on performing CPR until the machine is set up and ready to use.






Whatspp 9944411391 for any information on firstaid